Having a chronic illness or disability should not be considered an obstacle to exercise. Indeed, conditioning exercise, when accompanied by treatment that allows the disease to be controlled, brings many physical and psychological benefits.
In children with chronic illnesses or disabilities, exercise promotes socialization and strengthens self-esteem.
Sports and Asthma
The’crisis It is manifested, in its acute form, by bouts of coughing and a feeling of suffocation. Usually, this happens because there is a file allergens (Substance that causes seizures: pollen, dust, hair, mites, etc.) ignite Chronic bronchial tubes. The bronchi contract and secrete mucus: it is difficult for air to move into the lungs, especially outside them. Psychological factors such as stress or anxiety can exacerbate or even trigger attacks.
People with asthma can play most sports Beneficial effects are derived. However, training must be adapted and individualized. in particular, Warm up is very important. Starting exercise too abruptly, after five to ten minutes, can trigger a crunch.crisis She said crisis Exertion. To avoid these crises, it is necessary to warm up very gradually, perhaps inhaling a quarter of an hour before training a few puffs ofaerosol bronchodilator The doctor prescribes it.
People with asthma should also be careful cold air : It is best to cover your nose and mouth with a hood or balaclava, or prefer to exercise indoors (if it is not filled with dust!).
The Exercise is contraindicated for asthmatics Snorkeling and horse riding (for people allergic to horse hair or sweat). Sports that expose you to cold air (mountain climbing, skiing, skydiving, etc.) should be done with caution. Swimming appears to be beneficial (the air in swimming pools is warm and humid) except for those who are sensitive to chlorine fumes.
Sports and obesity
When adapted to their abilities and linked to a diet, physical activity leads to Many physical benefits In obese people: weight loss, decreased appetite, decreased cardiac complications Blood vessels, drop in arterial pressure, better resistance for this effort.
The psychological benefits From sports no less important. People regain confidence and enjoy better themselves because they participate in activities that they often thought were inaccessible. There is also a decrease in anxiety, often present in obese people, and a new awareness of their body.
Beneficial effects of exercise obesity However, it tends to disappear once it stops. So we must be careful to choose a motivational activity This allows the individual to persevere and progress. Certain activities, such as those that can damage the joints of the hips, knees and ankles (running, tennis, ball sports, etc.), should be avoided. It is best to start swimming or cycling. In children with obesity Games with minimal trauma allow you to expend a lot of energy.
Sports and diabetes
The ‘Insulin that it hormone which allows the regulation of glucose levels (Sugar) in the blood. Without it, this rate becomes very high. If glucose is the main food for our cells, levels that are too high for years cause damage to blood vessels, kidneys, eyes and nervous system.
Exercise and insulin-dependent diabetes (type 1)
People with insulin-dependent diabetes no longer secrete enough Insulin to control the rate Sugar in their blood. To maintain the normal range, they should regularly inject themselves with this hormone. Rather, this disease occurs in Youth.
In the first years after the discovery of his disease, a patient with type 1 diabetes can, on medical advice, play any sport and even compete at a high level. The only absolute contraindication is sports where loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood sugar (Insufficient rate of Sugar in blood) would be disastrous: diving, climbing, free-flying, etc.
To be able to exercise without risk, an athlete must have type 1 diabetes diabetic It is well controlled by insulin injections and must be aware of the body’s reactions to stress. In fact, to maintain the rate Sugar Sufficient blood, he should anticipate the energy expenditure associated with his efforts. Thus he can adapt his diet and do sage Insulin to inject.
In addition, during sports, it is generally recommended injection Insulin Far from working muscles To prevent it from being absorbed too quickly. As always in case diabe ticAnd even when exercising, it’s important to keep sugary drinks or foods close at hand. This makes it possible to deal with a possible sudden drop in the rate Sugar in the blood and avoid fainting.
Diabetes and non-insulin dependent diabetes (type 2)
People with non-insulin dependent diabetes still excrete Insulin, but this hormone It acts less effectively on the body. This disease mainly affects ghee and the old people.
Exercise is entirely possible for people with type 2 diabetes. However, they must do so under Strict medical supervision After a cardiovascular examination. In fact, in people with cardiovascular disease, exercise can cause seizures.angina chest or a heart attack.
Other complications related to diabetic (high pressure And hemorrhage subordinate Retina, the presence of proteins in the urine, insensitivity of the feet and hands, etc.) should also be detected under threat of aggravation by exercise.
Besides diet, physical activity has a beneficial effect On this disease because it contributes to losing weight, reducing fat mass and improving sensitivity Insulin.
People with this condition are usually presented diabetic Type 2 physical activity medium density (20 to 30 minutes, at least three to five times a week). All physical and sports activities of medium and long duration (walking, cycling, cross-country skiing, hiking, etc.) are especially suitable.
Sports and cardiovascular disease
Physical activity is possible and even recommended For people with many chronic cardiovascular diseases: hyper choles terolemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, etc.
Between people Hyper tension It is an endurance sport that is practiced until the onset of shortness of breath for at least half an hour three times a week, which makes it possible to reduce arterial pressure 1 point for high value (systolic pressure(for low value)diastolic pressure).
In people who have a file myocardial infarction (Part of this muscle died of suffocation), or who suffered? heart transplant, Activity Endurance Moderate under medical follow-up allows for a more rapid recovery. Of course, in these patients, it is no longer a matter of intense exercise.
Back pain and sports (low back pain)
In people suffering from Back pain Based on sciatica pain It is better to avoid so-called sports asymmetric (which mainly work on one side of the body): racquet sports, golf, for example.
The ball sports that require changing direction while supporting with one foot (football, rugby, handball) should be practiced with caution.
The Sports that strengthen the back Highly recommended: Swimming, rowing and weight lifting exercises. A pre-medical examination is of course necessary.
Exercising and chronic inflammatory bowel disease
The ulcerative colitis and the illness krone they infections Chronic bowel movements that sometimes accompany small bowel movements bleeding. These two diseases develop in flare-ups during which physical activity is not recommended.
Outside of these periods, all sports can be played Except for endurance races Which can aggravate gastrointestinal bleeding. Highly concentrated energy drinks are not recommended as they can cause or worsen Diarrhea.
Sports and epilepsy
This disease that causes seizures (loss of consciousness and uncontrolled muscle movements) is caused by a malfunction of the brain. Children with epilepsy are often excused from exercise. False, because the disease is usually well controlled by treatments and It does not prevent physical activity. Even supervised swimming can be considered.
The Sports contraindicated in people with epilepsy It is diving, combat sports or extreme sports. Water sports require a life jacket to be worn at all times. In general, it is best to avoid solo sports (alone hiking and mountaineering, sea swimming, free solo flying, etc.) and prefer team sports or athletics.
In all cases, it is essential to take your medication regularly, to be especially vigilant when changing treatment or dose Always carry your medicines and a card indicating that you have theme pilepsy.
Sports and neurod egenerative diseases
these diseases (Multiple Sclerosis Parkinson’s disease, etc.) can be very disabling. However, it does not completely rule out exercise which can also help maintain relative independence for a longer period.
The French Adaptive Sports Federation allows people with this type of pathology to enroll in several disciplines.
Sports infection and HIV/AIDS
People with HIV/AIDS who receive treatment sometimes experience a poor distribution of body fat: weight loss in the face and extremities and weight gain in the stomach and sometimes the neck.
Preference for regular physical activity endurance sports It seems to help alleviate this side effects drug against human immunodeficiency virus. In some countries, exercise with a high risk of bleeding requires a negative serological test for infection by human immunodeficiency virus and the virus from Lever Inflammation.
Sports and cancer
People receiving treatment cancer Finding some physical and psychological benefits in doing sports-type activity: fighting stress, improving appetite, improving sleep quality, and reducing some side effects greater confidence in their physical abilities, etc.
Provided that the state of health and physical form allow, most sports (except contact or combat sports) are possible during and after treatment: swimming, cycling, hiking, etc.